To calculate mass, you generally need to use the formula derived from Newton’s second law of motion, which states that force equals mass times acceleration (F = ma). If you know the force applied to an object and the acceleration, you can rearrange the formula to solve for mass (m = F/a).

Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to calculate the mass of an object:

- Measure the force applied to the object. A force meter or scale that measures in Newtons can be used for this.
- Determine the acceleration of the object. The acceleration is zero if the object is moving at a constant speed. If it’s speeding up or slowing down, you can calculate acceleration by dividing the change in velocity by the time over which the change occurs (a = Δv/Δt).
- Calculate mass using the rearranged formula m = F/a. Divide the measured force by the acceleration to find the mass in kilograms.

For instance, if you apply a force of 10 Newtons to move a box that accelerates at 2 meters per second squared, the box’s mass is 10 N divided by two m/s², which equals 5 kilograms.

Note that this method assumes an environment with no significant friction or other forces acting on the object besides gravity. In situations where additional forces are at play or for complex calculations involving gravitational force (weight), the method of calculating mass may differ.